Plunger, coffee, and filter? Which coffee-brewing technique yields the strongest cup? Which is better for you? Which contains the most caffeine, then?


Coffee — one bean with many possibilities. A big choice is how to brew it: espresso, filter, plunger, percolator, instant and more. Each method has unique equipment, timing, temperature, pressure, and coffee grind and water needs.

Our choices of brewing method can be cultural, social or practical. But how much do they really impact what’s in your cup?

The way coffee is brewed can be influenced by culture and practicalities.(Unsplash)

Which is the strongest brew?

It depends. If we focus on caffeine , on a milligram per millilitre (mg/ml) basis espresso methods are typically the most concentratedable to deliver up to 4.2 mg/ml. This is about three times higher than other methods like Moka pot (a type of boiling percolator) and cold brewing at about 1.25 mg/ml. Drip and plunger methods (including French and Aero-press) are about half that again.

Espresso methods extract the most caffeine for a few reasons. Using the finest grind means there is more contact between the coffee and water. Espresso also uses pressure, pushing more compounds out into the water. While other methods brew for longer, this doesn’t impact caffeine. This is because caffeine is water soluble and easy to extract, so it’s released early in brewing.

Coffee pours into cups from a machine at a coffee stand
The espresso brewing method extracts most caffeine.(Mick Tsikas: Reuters)

But these comparisons are made based on typical extraction situations, not typical consumption situations.

So, while espresso gives you the most concentrated product, this is delivered in a smaller volume (just 18–30ml), compared to much larger volumes for most other methods. These volumes of course vary depending on the maker, but a recent Italian study defined a typical final serve of filter, percolator and cold brews as 120ml.

Based on this maths, cold brew actually comes out as the highest dose of caffeine per serve with almost 150mg — even higher than the 42–122mg totals found in finished espresso. Although cold brew uses cold water, and a larger grind size, it is brewed with a high coffee to water ratio, with extra beans needed in the brew. Of course, “standard serves” are a concept not a reality — you can multiply serves and supersize any coffee beverage!

With the rising price of coffee, you might also be interested in extraction efficiency — how much caffeine you get for each gram of coffee input.

Interestingly, most methods are actually pretty similar. Espresso methods vary but give an average of 10.5 milligrams per gram (mg/g), compared to 9.7–10.2mg/g for most other methods. The only outlier is the French press, with just 6.9mg/g of caffeine.

‘Strength’ is more than just caffeine

Caffeine content only explains a small part of the strength of coffee. Thousands of compounds are extracted, contributing to aroma, flavour and function. Each has their own pattern of extraction, and they can interact with each other to inhibit or enhance effects.

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